- tsumkwe - commercial
farms - definition -
The two primary stakeholders
in the Caprivi are the State and the local communities.
In 1996, a legislative amendment provided for custodial rights
over wildlife to be granted to communities on communal land
subject to their forming and registering "Conservancies".
The provision grants partial
rights for common property management and use of wildlife
in defined areas (Corbett and Jones 2000). By 2002, 15 conservancies
had been registered, and some 35 more are in the process of
Figure 14: Protected areas and conservancies in the
The Conservancies which have been established or are being
established in the Caprivi are listed below:
||Kwandu (190km2), Mayuni (151km2), Mashi
(c250km2), Wuparo (190km2) and Salambala (930km2)
||Malengalenga, Lianshulu and Impalila
All of these are within the potential
buffalo range, and the outcome for buffalo in the Caprivi
depends critically on their success (Figure
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Waterberg Plateau Park
stakeholder for the
Waterberg population is the Ministry of Environment
and Tourism since the buffalo occur on their land.
A number of options exist for the future disposal of some
or all of these buffalo:
- if they were to be used for introductions
to commercial farms as recommended by Morkel (1988),
then the recipients would also become primary stakeholders;
- if they were used to establish a buffalo population
at Mangetti Game Camp and if this area were to become
of Chief Kahenge's people (PW 1998), then the conservancy
would be a primary stakeholder;
- if they were relocated to Etosha National Park, the
Ministry would remain the sole primary stakeholder.
If all the animals were sold to South African buyers and
the funds deposited in the Game Products Trust Fund as recommended
by Fryer (2002), a number of secondary
stakeholders might become the beneficiaries of the fund.
Fryer recommends that some of the funds be used to construct
a large paddock for the Tsumkwe
buffalo herd - in which case the Nyae Nyae Conservancy
would become a potential stakeholder.
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stakeholders for the Tsumkwe
buffalo are the Nyae Nyae conservancy on whose land
they are situated. Because of its investment in capturing
the buffalo and maintaining them at Tsumkwe, the Ministry
of Environment must also be seen as a primary stakeholder.
As in the case of the Waterberg buffalo, the identification
of other stakeholders is dependent on the management
decisions for the future of these buffalo.
Northern Namibia Commercial Farms
At present veterinary restrictions prohibit the introduction
of buffalo on commercial farms in Namibia. However, Buffalo
potential to raise land use values in northern Namibia.
Figure 21: land tenure in Namibia above 400mmm rainfall
stakeholders in this particular instance are the commercial
farmers in the Outjo, Tsumeb, Groofontein and Otjiwarongo
districts and perhaps those in the north east of Okahandja
and Gobabis districts (Figure
Buffalo are perceived by some as a highly desirable component
of land use
systems and, equally, the reverse is true. Therefore those
that oppose the
introduction of buffalo to commercial farms in northern
Namibia have to be regarded as stakeholders: whether they
should be seen as primary
stakeholders is a matter for debate. Perhaps those who
are investing in wildlife development on land should be recognised
as primary stakeholders and those who oppose the introduction
of buffalo as secondary.