- requirements for monitoring
Habitat: Satellite imagery can be used for detailed
fire mapping (Mendelsohn & Roberts 1997, p 24-25). Minimum
effective requirements should be defined.
Artificial water point utilization needs to be monitored
and quantified to asses their success e.g. through aerial
surveys in the late dry season and spoor and buffalo sightings
Radio-tracking studies might establish whether contact is
taking place between buffalo from the eastern and western
ends of the Caprivi Strip.
Distribution: The status of the buffalo range can
be simply assessed by the amount of land settled and cleared
for agriculture. This can be measured using air photography
or satellite imagery.
Progress in establishing buffalo populations in northern
Namibia requires detailed record-keeping beginning with the
age and sex of all animals in each founder cohort and the
subsequent natality and mortality in the new population.
Numbers: A system of monitoring
law enforcement effort and illegal activity needs to be
put into place.
Buffalo surveys are
problematic (DSS 2002 p26). At the Kasane Workshop it
was agreed that
An adequate monitoring system must be implemented to monitor
The monitoring system must be repeatable and consistently
There is a need for collaboration between Botswana and Namibia
on this activity.
Economics: A record of ages of buffalo trophies taken
on sport hunting will indicate the sustainability of the operation
and give a reasonable assessment of the trends in the buffalo
population. It is possible with the aid of the
population model for buffalo to estimate the size of the
buffalo population from the age structure of the trophies.
The Conservancies should take responsibility for this monitoring
in their areas at an early stage.
The annual record of revenues and incomes earned from safari
hunting in State Protected Areas and Conservancies will provide
the data needed to assess the overall progress towards achieving
the economic objectives.
Critical requirements for
In general, most monitoring activities should be applied
within an adaptive management framework. This includes keeping
the levels of research and monitoring affordable and sustainable.
An important purpose of monitoring is to assess whether
the objective of increasing buffalo populations is being achieved.
Aerial surveys are not ideal for monitoring
buffalo and should be coupled with other, cheaper monitoring
techniques such as the conservancy monitoring systems.
Critical requirements are:
- must allow self-diagnosis and self-correction of management
- must be capable of being expanded depending on the priorities
which emerge for monitoring.
Martin (2002) suggests monitoring population performance
with the aid of an adaptive management system to set hunting
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