Elephant >>


Social Objective Ecological Objective Economic Objective

Reduce conflict between elephants and people


Create conditions under which elephants are a benefit to people.



Increase the range available to elephant.


Conserve biological diversity in State Protected Areas and promote the conservation of habitats outside State Protected Areas in the elephant range.

Enable the full economic potential of elephants to be realised according to the provisions for sustainable use in Namibia's Constitution


Figure 26: Options, problems and solutions for managing elephant in Namibia

Figure 27: Management Strategy for elephant

Strategy and Actions

A feature of this management plan is just how few actions are needed to bring it to fruition. Success relies on a few administrative masterstrokes which will cost nothing - rather than on a long list of expensive management activities.


  1. Devolution
  2. Veterinary control fences
  3. Constraints on trade
  4. Co-Management
  5. Adaptive Management


Simple as the objectives are, they will not be achieved by 'linear programming' within each objective. As outlined in Figure 27, to achieve the ecological objective of increasing elephant range requires certain actions to be taken in the social and economic categories. The social objectives of reducing conflict and achieving a flow of benefits require actions to be taken in the ecological and economic realms. The full economic objective will not be achieved until all of the other objectives are in place. Whilst all the actions and outcomes appear to be inextricably linked, it is possible to present them in a sequence which leads logically to the achievement of the objectives.